When to Euthanize a Dog with Hemangiosarcoma [By Dr Crow]

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This article was updated on July 1st, 2022

Making the decision to euthanize a dog with hemangioscarcoma / spleen tumors can be challenging. It’s a decision that I had to grapple with recently with the owner of Rusty, a 12-year-old black Labrador retriever, who was brought to our clinic.

On the day Rusty was brought in to see me, he had become particularly tense, reactive to anyone touching his tummy. I was concerned, especially at the rate at which Rusty had deteriorated; for a dog that used to rush into the vets out of excitement, he was very flat and avoided walking at all costs.

Blood tests showed a high level of globulins (a type of protein often associated with cancer), high liver enzymes and a mild anaemia. We suspected the worst – hemangiosarcoma was a potential diagnosis and an ultrasound scan of Rusty’s abdomen was offered to help confirm this. The scan showed free fluid within Rusty’s abdomen which turned out to be blood and an enlarged irregular mass on his spleen.

Unfortunately, Rusty had a splenic hemangiosarcoma (spleen tumor) which was bleeding into his abdomen. The tumor had aggressively infiltrated much of the surrounding tissues, including the liver. Because of this, euthanasia was recommended.

Surgery in such cases carries a poor prognosis, and while the offer was made to go to surgery to the owners, they agreed that it wasn’t fair to put him through such a procedure. Rusty had lived a wonderful life up until this point and putting him to sleep was the most humane thing we could do for him.

A sudden decision

If your dog has been recently diagnosed with hemangiosarcoma then aspects of Rusty’s story might seem familiar. It can be hard to decide when to continue treatment and when to put your beloved companion to sleep. Hemangiosarcoma often lies under the radar until it has progressed to a very late stage of the disease, leaving many owners with a sudden decision of whether to euthanize their dog. Having such an ultimatum sprung upon them is very hard for any dog parent.

In this article, I will outline key information to help you decide when it is the right time to euthanize a dog with hemangiosarcoma, including survival rates for dogs with different types of hemangiosarcoma, treatment options, and finally, important questions to consider and steps to take before euthanizing a dog with hemangiosarcoma. Hopefully, this will give you enough information to be able to make an informed decision.

What is a hemangiosarcoma?

Hemangiosarcoma, or HSA for short, is a highly malignant cancer of a type of cell known as endothelial cells – cells that line the blood vessels. While some hemangiosarcoma’s can be successfully treated if they are diagnosed early enough, the challenge is finding the tumor in the first place; it is a covert form of cancer that often goes undetected and results in very non-specific symptoms. Often dogs, like in Rusty’s case, won’t present to the vets until a major event has occurred such as the tumor rupturing inside the abdomen. Learn more with our article “Hemangiosarcoma in Dogs: A Vet Explains Everything You Need to Know

What is the survival rate of hemangiosarcoma?

Knowledge of average survival rates will aid your decision in knowing when it may be time to euthanize a dog with hemangiosarcoma. The survival rate and life expectancy for a dog with hemangiosarcoma depend on the type of HSA, how soon it is diagnosed and what organs It is affecting. However, due to the aggressive nature of this form of cancer, the survival rate is measured in months rather than years:

  • Dermal Hemangiosarcoma: HSA affecting the skin has the best prognosis provided the cancerous tissue is removed before it has a chance to spread. Dermal HSA is associated with sunlight exposure; always have red growths on the skin tested by your local vet. Dermal HSA was shown to have a median survival time of 780 days in one study, however in cases where the cancer invades the underlying subcutaneous tissue the survival time is dramatically reduced.
  • Subcutaneous Hemangiosarcoma: Found under the skin, this type of HSA will appear as a dark red coloured growth. This is a more aggressive form of hemangiosarcoma and will spread to the internal organs in almost two thirds of cases. The median survival time for this form of HSA is 172-307 days.
  • Visceral Hemangiosarcoma: The most aggressive form of HSA is the visceral form; it carries a poor prognosis and complete surgical removal is challenging. Once hemangiosarcoma spreads to the internal organs the median survival rate is 3-6 months with only 10% of dogs reaching one year of age, even with surgery and chemotherapy. However, once diagnosis takes place most dogs are well into this 3–6-month period already.

Unfortunately, treatment is very rarely curative unless caught very early in the dermal or subcutaneous form.

Can treatment options help?

Because many forms of hemangiosarcoma remain undetected until the advanced stages many forms of treatment have little to no effect. However, if detected early enough, treatment can add months onto an affected dog’s survival time.

Surgery: Surgery is the primary treatment and involves removing as much of the tumor as possible. This will depend on the location of the tumor and if it has metastasized (spread). Surgical treatment may be curative for the dermal form of HSA, but even then dogs affected are at higher chance of more tumors appearing on the body elsewhere. A wide margin of tissue should be removed surrounding the tumor and you should avoid exposing your dog to direct sunlight if possible. Removal of the visceral form of HSA is inherently difficult and doesn’t come without risks such a hemorrhage, but if the tumor can be sufficiently removed then surgery has the greatest chance of increasing survival time. Treating splenic HSA by performing a splenectomy alone (removal of the spleen) gives dogs a median survival time of 1.6 months according to this study.

Chemotherapy: Chemo is often used as adjunctive therapy to surgery, especially if complete removal of the tumor could not be achieved. Various drug protocols are used and although not curative, chemo aims to slow the progression of growth of hemangiosarcoma. Dogs treated with both surgery and chemotherapy have a median survival time closer to 6 months.

Radiotherapy: Usually used as a palliative treatment option, radiotherapy is most often used in cases of the dermal form of HSA where complete surgical removal was not possible. It has limited use in cases of visceral HSA other than reducing pain associated with the disease.

How does surgery and/or chemotherapy improve survival rates?

Surgical treatment and chemotherapy have poor success rates and will only add months to a dog affected with HSA’s lifespan. According to the whole dog journal, the 12-month survival rate is only 6-13% of those dogs treated surgically and 12-20% treated with surgery and chemotherapy. While some dogs may continue to lead a fairly happy and normal life, this time is usually short-lived, and they can deteriorate quickly. Unfortunately, eventually, all dogs with HSA will die of sudden internal hemorrhage.

Dogs that aren’t treated have dramatically reduced survival times. Dogs with the subcutaneous form of disease on average have 6 months to live whereas untreated dogs with the visceral form often die within 2 weeks if they are in late stage.

Important questions to help you decide if you should euthanize a dog with Hemangiosarcoma

  1. What stage of disease is your dog at?

Determining what stage your dog is at can be challenging as symptoms are generally non-specific and don’t appear until later in the disease process.

Dog in the early stages may appear more lethargic, have exercise intolerance, and have a reduced appetite.

As the underlying disease progresses, dogs might show symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, pale gums, or a distended abdomen.

Dogs in a late stage of the disease may have difficulty breathing, display unusual neurological activity, seizure or suddenly collapse. If your dog is in this situation then it is considered an emergency as they are likely dying of hemangiosarcoma; euthanasia is often the most humane option at this point.

2. How is your dog’s quality of life?

Making the decision to put your dog to sleep is never easy and will depend on what form of hemangiosarcoma your dog has, how quickly it is progressing, how effective treatment will be and their current quality of life. While some treatment options might extend your dog’s lifespan by months to a year, the time will inevitably come when the disease has progressed to a point that it is seriously affecting your dog’s life.

Ultimately your dog’s quality of life is the only thing that matters when making the decision. Ask yourself these questions:

  • Does your dog seem happy? Do they still show excitement to do their favourite things?
  • Does your dog still have a good appetite?
  • Does your dog need assistance moving around?
  • Does your dog seem in pain?
  • Does your dog regularly vomit?
  • Do they have difficulty breathing or regularly gasp for breath?

You can use these criteria to help you decide when to euthanize a dog with hemangiosarcoma; if the answer to most of these questions is a negative one then it is the right time to consider euthanasia – discuss your dog’s case with your vet who can help you make the decision.

If your dog has suddenly collapsed, has pale gums and is gasping for air then it is likely that the hemangiosarcoma has ruptured internally. Depending on the extent of internal hemorrhage and how invasive the tumor is, it might be the right decision to have your dog euthanized there and then before they deteriorate further. There are times when it may be inhumane to put a dog through extensive treatment or surgery if the chances of survival are minimal; it only prolongs the inevitable.

Steps you can take to help you decide when to euthanize a dog with Hemangiosarcoma

Hearing that your beloved companion has a form of cancer with limited treatment options and poor survival rates is devastating news for an owner. Emotions are high and the thought of your dog suffering is a hard reality to face.

Although it is hard to be rational in these situations, you must put the welfare of your dog first – making the decision as to when to euthanize cannot be a selfish one. The ability to perform euthanasia is a blessing; it allows vets and owners to bring an end to an animals’ suffering and allows them to pass with dignity, so take solace in that fact.

To help you come to the right decision, follow these steps:

  1. Talk to your vet – Questions to Ask Your Vet to help with Decision on When to Euthanize:
    • What type of hemangiosarcoma does my dog have and what stage are they in?
    • What treatment options are available?
    • What is their survival rate with and without treatment?
    • What symptoms should I look out for that might mean my dog needs euthanizing?
    • Is my dog in pain?
  2. Take our quiz to help you evaluate your dog’s quality of life: “It is time to euthanize” quiz.
  3. Learn about the process. If you have concluded that euthanasia is the best thing for your dog, ask you vet what the process entails. Most veterinary clinics will allow the owner to be with their dog at the time of passing and some may even be able to arrange a home visit to allow your dog to be as comfortable as possible. Being prepared for what the euthanizing process involves will prevent any shocks or anxiety leading up to the event; that way you can concentrate on being there for your canine friend.

View our page on Putting an Old Dog To Sleep to learn more.


  • Dr Alex Crow, Veterinary Surgeon

    Alex Crow, VetMed MRCVS, is an RCVS accredited Veterinary surgeon with special interests in neurology and soft tissue surgery. Dr Crow is currently practicing at Buttercross Veterinary Center in England. He earned his degree in veterinary medicine in 2019 from the Royal Veterinary College (one of the top 3 vet schools in the world) and has more than three years of experience practicing as a small animal veterinarian (dogs and cats).

Disclaimer: This website's content is not a substitute for veterinary care. Always consult with your veterinarian for healthcare decisions. Read More.


  1. Thank you for this. We suddenly had to decide to put our dog down Saturday night because of hemangiosarcoma–a disease we had never even heard about until that night. She was 7 and woke up feeling great and had been doing great, daily walks, playing fetch, eating well–no signs that she was unwell. But by the afternoon Saturday she seemed tired and had no appetite. By the end of the day she barely moved and suddenly her back legs gave out. We rushed her to the emergency vet where we learned her belly was full of blood and a hemangiosarcoma tumor had ruptured. We wanted to do anything we could to keep her with us but within minutes had to decide it was not humane to try surgery as she was quickly dying. They performed CPR on her once and brought her back but just long enough for us to say goodbye before putting her to sleep with us there to comfort her in her final moments.
    I keep questioning if there was more we could have done, but this gives me peace of mind that we did the right thing.

    • This is exactly what happen to our beloved dog earlier this week. The only comfort is knowing he isn’t suffering.

    • This just happened to my 7 year old Aussie this past Sunday. We were shocked, she didn’t show symptoms until we got up on Sunday. Apparently she had a large Hemangiosarcoma on her spleen that had ruptured and she was bleeding internally. We made the difficult decision to euthanize her before she suffered any more and it still seems like a really bad dream. We were devastated and so heartbroken. We sat in the floor loving on her as she took her last breath.

  2. I am so sorry that this happened to your baby.
    I have a 10 year old Golden that has this type if cancer. He was diagnosed about 2 months ago, and I have to say,he is still with us.
    Everyday there are more bumps, and the ones he has get bigger daily, as well.
    We found out when he went blind, pretty much overnight.
    I know the day is coming, but he still wants to go for walks, play with his new “noisy” balls, and he eats like we starve him.
    But… this is a horrible disease and we know his day is coming. I just can’t do it yet.

    • Same sad story with my little Lexi.
      Had the spleen removed and since the hospital sold me diet food,and sent me home, I thought.Ok, spleen removed,6k later,but my baby will be with me 1 to 3 more years…. NO,its 1 to 3 months. Living like this is hell! I just don’t want her to suffer, she is running, playing and I’m trying to tell myself it’s not true even though I know it is. Taking it day by day.

    • My 8.5 year old Golden has a tumor in his heart. We have had fluid drained from his heart sac twice but we are told this may not continue to work much longer. I am having trouble with the thought of euthanasia when I see him being his old playful self after the fluid has been drained. So here I sit at midnight
      reading about the subject still not knowing what to do.

  3. My 9yr old American Staffordshire was diagnosed with subcutaneous hermangiosarcoma 2 months ago when a mass was removed from her left hip. Prior to the mass her vet thought she was simply experiencing arthritis. We’re doing monthly chest x-rays and exams to monitor her condition as the nearest vet oncologist is almost 2hrs away and my pup doesn’t travel well and had a lengthy recovery after her last surgery. I’m worried about the amount of weight my girl’s losing even though her meals haven’t decreased. No new masses have been detected yet. Should I increase her food intake? She’s always weighed between 50-55lbs and is down to 48. I want to keep her with us and as comfortable as possible until the time comes.

  4. Thank you for this article. It helped us deal with the sudden emotions, feeling guilty that we decided to take away those precious weeks or months of our 12 year old vizsla. She had been collecting bumps for several years; we figured the fatigue from her daily walks was age. But it was within hours that she went from normal to internal bleeding. We didn’t see how putting her through surgeries and chemo would add to her quality of life for those few weeks. We couldn’t handle the thought that she might die alone in the house one day while we were at work. So we were with her, holding her as she was euthanized. She went to sleep peacefully one last time, with us at her side.

  5. We just had a similar experience with this horrible disease. Our beloved pooch was fine on Thursday afternoon but wasn’t acting right that evening. I got him to the vet on Friday morning and an x-ray revealed a large, bleeding mass on or near his spleen. By that afternoon, we were faced with deciding whether to say goodbye or put our darling through surgery. We had 13 wonderful years together and he only had one day of pain. I keep second guessing our choice, but articles like these provide some reassurance that our act of love was the right one for our boy. God bless all who have to lose their beloved pets to hemangiosarcoma.

  6. This is a horrible disease. We put our 12 years old Black Lab to sleep 2 days ago. She had diabetes and Cushing disease. We just had a check up for her last Thursday to better control diabetes and took an ultrasound as well, you know, just to make sure. Then bum, they found 10cm mass in her spleen, ready to burst. Opted for surgery and our vet tried to book it, but Holly never made it. On Saturday night she started feeling very bad, icy legs,white gums. We rushed to er, and cut her suffering. I have a hole in my heart, don’t know how to deal with this, I’m broken to pieces. The sweetest girl ever, my soul mate,it happened so quick.

  7. Thank you for this informative and empathetic article. My sweet Greta has this disease, identified about 2 weeks ago. I am on pins and needles watching her for any sign of discomfort. Your comments here are also extremely helpful. She appears to still be happy and enjoying the yard. But as someone else has said I worry she will fail when I’m running an errand or out to dinner. I don’t want her to suffer.

  8. Thank you so much for publishing this article. It has helped me understand I made the best decision to end my little dachshund’s suffering before his spleen ruptured. I only had one day to learn about the disease and decide what to do. The comments from others who have been through this horrible experience have helped me a great deal also.

  9. Thank you for this article.
    My schnauzer was off sorts for 4 months. We thought it was arthritis, and started librella and physiotherapy.
    I still thought she was off sorts so started investigations.
    Old dog bloods – basically normal, Monday this week – lymph node biopsy as lymphoma most common cancer in schnauzers – before I could receive the results of this test being normal, she didn’t eat her dinner. She was lethargic and tense. Because she’d been on clomicalm, then off it and back on it again I wasn’t sure if it was a reaction to the pills. Next morning she still wasn’t ok so I rushed her to our vets in floods of tears as anything beyond blocked anal glands with my dogs makes me cry like a loony. He found a ruptured spleen. He carried out an X-ray and there was no obvious metastasis to other areas. So he said surgery (2k – 2023 U.K. vet rates at known reasonable vet) which we agreed to as there is a 50/50 it’s benign and he said he would do this for his own dog in this situation. I’m now on days 2 post surgery. She’s cried her eyes out and only settled now just about on and off, but she’s on syringe feeding by me. It isn’t uncommon for the dogs to need ITU for 3 days after this surgery. As I’m an experienced dog handler I’m effectively ITU here as I have all the meds they want her to have and can safely syringe feed. This isn’t easy as there is a pneumonia risk if you do it wrong.
    The shock and trauma of this has brought me out in a rash and I can’t stop crying. I feel so sorry for my lovely lady.
    I send big hugs to all of you where the pendulum swung to euthanasia. My vet isn’t money mad and therefore I trust him here that this wasn’t done for his own gain. I won’t know for a week if it’s cancer. She is 13 years old. This is a very very big operation and on balance for her it was only just fair to try it. Which was my vet’s view. He took her to his house the first night to care for her. How sweet is that ? Also with the understanding if he wasn’t happy with her progress he’d have to put her down.
    Looking back on this all, all I could pick up was weight loss and tension around the stomach.
    The vet said there was one suspect capsicum from the ruptured tumour in her tummy. Everything else looked clear.
    He said if it is cancer it will be aggressive so she will be managed out carefully over the next 4-12 weeks. He said it’s only either benign or aggressive in his experience. Never a sleepy cancer.
    I’ve had 2 other dogs with different cancers. Cancer is a nightmare in dogs as they can’t speak to us.
    Just huge respect for all of you who’ve been through this. And to your lovely dogs too.

  10. We are going through this now with our 9 year old Shar pie/shiba/pittie mix. I felt a lump three weeks ago. It was the size of a mandating orange. We needle aspirated and all that came back was blood. Back in for X-rays and labs one week later and now the mass fills my whole hand in size. Discrete nodules found in his lung fields. Mass resection 6 days later and the tumor is so big and infiltrated through tissue layers that the vet cannot get it all. We decide to abort the resection, agree that whichever type of HSA this is (likely visceral) he is stage III and we decide palliative pain management and lifestyle. One week post op and his surgical site is filling up with fluid inside. You can see the wave across his abdomen when he breathes. So he is showing advanced signs and yet….and yet….he still is hungry, he is still able to potty,,, he is still interested in barking and guarding the front door. This morning he engaged our puppy to play. I am not even living day to day….this is literally 8 hour shift by 8 hour shift, reassessing him, trying to gauge if he is stressed, uncomfortable, short of breath, in pain, scared. I vacillate constantly about making an appointment for euthanasia or continue to wait it out. I don’t want him to have pain. My fear is that I will wait too long and he will suffer for it. This is extraordinarily difficult to sort out. My heart goes out to anyone having to make this choice and their sweet puppos. This disease is bullshit.

  11. Thank you all so much. I am sitting here with my baby now. He is 11 months into his diagnosis of hemangiosarcoma heart and spleen and with God’s blessings has been fantastic. This morning he did not want to eat or drink not even his favorite toast beef! He is sleeping and I am waiting for my husband to get home from the office so we can take him up the vet. I love my baby and don’t want yo face this but reading your posts gives me strength to do what is best for Sammie.

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