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All About Weight Loss In Older Dogs

Score for Seniors:
Activity Level:
Weight: Pounds

Weight loss in older dogs can be slow and subtle, or it can be sudden and noticeable.

Either way, if you have an old dog who is losing weight it’s important to figure out why it’s happening.

This is because sudden weight loss could be a symptom of an underlying health problem – and sometimes these problems can be serious.

The earlier you find out what’s causing the pounds to drop off, the better your chances of getting the issue under control quickly, ensuring your senior friend’s quality of life is maintained in his twilight years.

You see your dog every day and are in the best position to notice any changes, even if they’re small or seem insignificant.

It’s especially important to be on top of this when Fido is a senior.

Common Causes Of Weight Loss In Older Dogs

small dog at the vet

So, what is considered to be ‘significant’ weight loss?

What size drop is enough that it could be a sign of illness, or at least warrant a trip to your veterinarian?

Veterinary standards suggest that if your dog has lost 10% or more of his normal weight, then it’s something to be concerned about.

Not panicked, but concerned.

Not all weight loss means trouble….

It’s not unusual for even healthy senior dogs to lose weight slowly as they age.

Things which can cause this type of weight loss include:

  • Loss of muscle mass
  • Reduced appetite
  • Poor absorption/digestion of food

It’s obviously important to rule out illness/disease if your Golden Oldie is losing weight, even if it’s slow or subtle.

However, once given a clean bill of health, there are some simple steps you can take to help keep weight on your older dog (as long as he/she isn’t overweight to begin with).

If your older dog has lost 10% or more of his body weight over the past few months (or within a year) then a trip to your veterinarian for a complete check-up would be advisable.

With most health problems, there’s more than one symptom – and as weight loss in older dogs can be a sign of several different conditions or diseases, – it’s the OTHER symptoms that often give your vet the clues he needs.

So if you notice that your senior dog seems to be losing weight, pay close attention to his other bodily functions and behavior and make a note of anything that seems out of the ordinary, or unusual, for him.

WATCH: 3 Important Tips To Care For an Old Dog [VET VIDEO]

This will give your vet more ‘ammunition’ to use when he’s trying to make a diagnosis.

Symptoms: Weight Loss and….

  • Dry ‘rubbery’ gums
  • Lethargy
  • Sunken eyes
  • Loss of skin elasticity
  • Less urination
  • Dark urine

Possible Causes

  • Dehydration

The aging process causes some overall loss of fluids and some weight loss in older dogs can be caused by this, IF they’re not getting enough water or have an underlying disease.

This is normal, but it means that you need to be extra-careful to make sure that Fido gets plenty of fresh water every day.

You can also increase his fluid intake by adding broth (low sodium) to his kibble.

Canned dog food (wet) contains much more water per cup than dry food does, so mixing some with the dry kibble can also help.

Senior dogs whose senses of smell or taste are fading, who have dental issues,or who have become ‘picky’ eaters, can also often be encouraged to eat more this way too.

Some diseases that affect older dogs can also cause dehydration, so have Fido checked out by your vet to make sure there’s no underlying health problem.

Symptoms: Weight Loss and….

  • Excessive drooling
  • Difficulty eating/chewing
  • Bad breath
  • Swollen or bleeding gums

Possible Causes

  • Dental problems

Weight loss in older dogs can sometimes be caused by something as simple as broken or decaying teeth, gingivitis, or gum disease.

There are more serious oral conditions such as tumors too. Your vet needs to look inside your dog’s mouth as soon as possible.

Symptoms: Weight Loss and….

  • Excessive thirst
  • Excessive urination
  • Increased appetite
  • Lethargy
  • Repeated urinary tract infections

Possible Causes

  • Diabetes

Diabetes can cause an older dog to lose weight because it stops his body from getting the energy it needs from glucose the way it normally would.

So, his body tries to convert fat, or protein into energy instead.

This doesn’t work very well at all, and Fido will soon use up any reserves he has, and no matter how much he eats his system can’t keep up and he’ll continue to lose weight.

Symptoms: Weight Loss and….

  • Decreased appetite
  • Excessive
  • Sudden lethargy
  • Unusual bleeding
  • Lumps, bumps or swelling
  • Distended abdomen
  • Limping or lameness
  • Unusual urination – frequency or amount

Possible Causes

  • Cancer

Cancer is one of those diseases that can be very difficult to diagnose through visible symptoms alone.

There are so many different types of cancer in dogs, and some of them have no obvious symptoms until they’ve become advanced and spread.

BUT you know your senior dog better than anyone else, and you are in the best position to notice what might be very subtle changes that could be warning signs.

Please don’t panic and assume Fido has cancer if he fits one or two of the symptoms above, but have your veterinarian give him a thorough check up and mention ANYTHING you think might be relevant.

Symptoms: Weight Loss and….

  • Decreased appetite
  • Lethargy
  • Increased thirst
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Pain (panting/pacing/drooling)
  • Pale or yellow gums
  • Yellowing of skin/eyes

Possible Causes

  • Liver Disease
  • Gallbladder Disease

The signs of liver disease in dogs can be very subtle, but sudden (or consistent) weight loss is one of them.

Several of these symptoms could point to other digestive system problems, so again don’t panic and assume that Fido’s liver is at fault. Only your vet can make an accurate diagnosis.

The yellowing of gums or skin (jaundice) often indicates a liver or gallbladder problem.

Symptoms: Weight Loss and….

  • Increased thirst
  • Excessive urination (may contain blood)
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Pale gums
  • Depression or lethargy

Possible Causes

  • Kidney Disease

As dogs get older their major organs stop working as efficiently as they used to.

Kidney disease can come on so slowly that you don’t notice it until the kidneys start to fail.

In fact, the kidneys are great at compensating until they are about 70% damaged, so often when signs appear, the disease has already progressed quite far.

This is another reason to be very careful about monitoring Fido’s overall health carefully and get help if you notice weight loss in older dogs, especially if it’s accompanied by any other signs of illness.

Early diagnosis of any problem makes the prognosis better!

Symptoms: Weight Loss and….

  • A chronic cough
  • Tires easily
  • Exercise intolerance
  • Excessive panting
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Restlessness

Possible Causes

  • Heart Disease

Heart problems in older dogs can show very subtle signs early on, and mistaking these for the normal ‘slowing down’ of old age isn’t unusual.

But, as with most diseases, the earlier a diagnosis is made the better.

Many heart conditions can be managed with a combination of medication and lifestyle changes – if they’re caught early on.

Symptoms: Weight Loss and….

  • Wobbling
  • Lameness
  • Scuffing the toes
  • Incontinence

Possible Causes

  • Lower back issues, such as spondylosis
  • Hip arthritis

Lower back and hip issues can lead to difficulty walking normally in the hind quarters which can lead to significant depletion of muscle mass.

It’s a common sight for an elderly dog to look pretty chunky at the front end, but skinny in the hind quarters as the lower back and hips are the most common areas for age related orthopedic issues to occur.

If you are aware that your dog has an elongated back or hip dysplasia, talk to your vets about lifestyle management to prevent them from developing into degenerative orthopedic conditions.

What To Do About Weight Loss In Older Dogs

A premium dog food that is a good fit for your golden oldie’s health and age, along with appropriate exercise, is often enough to keep dogs at an acceptable weight no matter how old they are.

Lots of dogs gain weight as they get older, and a gradual thickening of the ‘waistline’ is pretty normal.

In an otherwise happy, healthy older dog this isn’t usually cause for concern.

But rapid weight gain in older dogs, just like rapid weight loss, is a different story, and needs to be evaluated by a veterinarian.

If your senior dog seems a little thinner, but it’s a change that has happened gradually, it’s less likely to be caused by a serious health problem… but it’s unusual enough to warrant a visit to the vet.

BUT, if the weight loss is sudden (or slow but obvious), and especially if you notice any other signs that Fido isn’t feeling well or acting normally, then it’s very important to have him examined by your veterinarian asap.

Treating the weight loss itself can only be done by treating the problem which is causing it to happen, and the only person who can make an accurate diagnosis is your veterinarian.

There’s no need to panic or assume the worst, many times it’s something simple at the root of the problem, and even chronic or serious illnesses can be treated or managed.

So, get Fido that check up and you can get peace of mind!


  • Dr Jo De Klerk is a principal Veterinarian at JDK Veterinarian Services. She is a board-certified veterinarian, who earned her Doctorate of Veterinary Medicine from the prestigious Royal Veterinary College in London. She is registered with the RCVS and SAVC and has a Master’s degree in Animal Health and a Certificate in Veterinary Pain Management. Her clinical interest and focus is in pain management and rehabilitation. She is the author of ‘Tales from a Young Vet’ and ‘Old Dog Love’.

  • Dr. Winnie earned a Bachelor of Science in Psychology from Duke University, a Masters of Science in Biology from St Georges University, and graduated from the University of Pretoria Veterinary School in South Africa.She has been an animal lover and owner all her life, having owned a Rottweiler named Duke, a Pekingese named Athena and now a Bull Mastiff named George, also known as big G! She is a full-time Veterinarian in South Africa specializing in internal medicine for large breed dogs. Outside of work, she enjoys spending time with her husband, 2 kids and Big G.

Related Article: Our Top 5 Tips to Care for Your Senior Dog
by Veterinarian Alex Crow.



  1. My 11 year old male boxer is losing weight rapidly. He is on prednisone and high fiber diet. The vet says he has ibs since his X-rays sonogram and blood work showed nothing more. I hope he’s right. The dog is lethargic, has the sunken eyes and overall just doesn’t look well.

    • Why a high fiber diet? Dogs are carnivores and prednisone is toxic. Up the protein and research proper grain free diet preferably homecooked with adequate minerals and digestive enzymes for dogs.

  2. My 13 year old Lab has just gone blind. She is very disoriented. She will only eat small amounts. She also has a large tumor over her eye but the vet says doesn’t seem to be in pain. She has never been affectionate which has never been like any of my dogs. She is also drooling alot. I don’t know what to do. I don’t know if she is just adjusting to blindness or what.

    • Hello Emly: I was touched by your post and wondering if you found out anything about your lab’s situation? We have used Internal Medicine Vet Specialists in the past when the GP’s are stumped. Also the internet may have some things that you can find as points of discussion to run past a good Vet. I’m wondering if one of the Vet schools has a clinic or a consultation service they offer over the phone that could give a second opinion? I know Cornell has had this service to help us with our cats int he past, not sure about dogs. Maybe she is drooling because she can’t see and I would imagine is a bit disoriented, I know I would be. Sure thinking about you and your baby!

  3. Emily: did you find out what is going on with our lab? We have a lab about the same age, she has not gone blind but sh his losing rapid weight but otherwise seems fine so we are going through the trial things of looking at everything. Do you know if a good Internal medicine vet can help your Lab determine what is going on. Sometimes I ask the “what if” questions from vets or even for my own health if they want me to do all sorts of tests but tests if necessary can rule things out. That’s where a good Specialist vs. a GP could help. Also are their vet schools which can give you a second opinion over the phone? I know Cornell has had consult service for a nominal fee for our cats in the past, wondering if there is a thing for dogs? Sure thinking about you through this.

  4. My dog is a terrier mix and is going on 14 years old. She lost the use of her hind legs when she was around 8 yrs untill I started putting her in a pool and made her swim and before you know it she was walking again. Now she’s starting to do it again and shes getting real skinny rapidly it seems to the point where her ribs stick out and I don’t know what to do. She also drinks alot of water and urinates alot uncontrollably

    • oh, that does not sound good that she is drinking a lot, peeing uncontrollably and losing weight. Could be thyroid or renal failure. I would definitely get her to a vet ASAP

    • Excessive thirst and frequent urination are symptoms of diabetes, as is weight loss. This goes for humans too. when the blood sugar is very high, it causes weight loss, and the excessive thirst and frequent urination is the way to try and dilute and flush the extra glucose from the system. I would definitely get the blood sugar checked.

    • Tom, did you end up at the vet? Any insight? I have a 13yo Jack Russell Terrior that is doing the exact same thing. His back legs give a lot, he hates being upright, and loss of urine control. I try to chalk it up to old age, but I think we are due for a vet visit.

  5. I am baffled that my 10 yr old Golden now weighs 68 lbs and you can see his ribs. past year.
    He had a malignant mast cell tumor removed from his ear in January and an ultra sound after that plus a follow up one in June which showed that all his organs were normal. Then he had a small benign growth removed from another part of the same ear in November but again no indication of cancer in his organs nor signs in the full blood work done.

    He has the same appetite, there are no changes to his environment, and he is happy because he sees me a lot more since I retired in March. He’ll still snuggles and wrestles the way he always has (I rescued him at 15 mos). On the recommendation of my vet I have been almost doubling his food, he eats it all, and he still scrounges for other food after he eats, so there is no change in that. He tires more easily in the hot sun, and will only chase a ball for 10 minutes now instead of hours due to his age.
    Any suggestions?

  6. Male Border Collie/Husky mix,age12,in Fall 2017 his wt. went from 66#s to 51#s. Blood work normal,x-ray from his neck to tail showed all normal. No masses found externally either. Fall 2018 wt. dropped to 41#s. Developed pinched nerve in low back, started some knuckling on back paws & losing some use of back legs. One Vet treated him w/prednisone,muscle relaxer, & gabapentin. Dog finally able rest/sleep.Then he developed Vestibular disease & 1 wk later wt. dropped to 35#s. 2 Vets want to euthanize him, 2 Vets say continue back therapy meds added laser treatments. & chirop. adjustmts. Said back ailmts take time to heal as well as Vestibular & for me not to lose hope & I wanted to give my dog as much time as he needed. As still blood work & xrays all normal.

  7. Hello checking in to see if anyone replied re:my poor dogs conditions. This all happening within a 2wk period. Where prior to onset of multiple ills., he is was eating & drinking normally,standing on all fours & walking well, w/normal urinating & bms. Thening 1st ailmt. pinched nerve in low back/hips & loss of use of back legs/knuckling. First wt.taken at this time he was 41lbs. One vet treating his pinched nerve, out him on new food to start wt.gain. pain in low back was out if control until 7th day of onset started gabapentin & mg boy finally got some pain relief & rest. 12th day new ills of vestibular disease. Wt. dropped to 34lbs. Has eaten a good meal everyday on 13th day he’s not taking water well,I’m fearing dehydration w/vestibular & he’s whimpering cries & barks seems to be in kind of daze…took him to vet, at vet she hasn’t started IV fluids which I asked for when walking into hosp. Told her of his pinched nerve meds & therapy, now of vestibular onset & my fear of now dehydration…she just wants to put him down. Shes focusing on his wt. at 34lbs now
    Which I know he lost due to uncontrolled low back pain w/pinched nerve & loss of use of back legs in wk1.This vet is new to us but went here as only place for CTscan & to treat the vestibular & wt.loss. I’m in
    grief strickin fog. My research says even sr. dogs w/time can pull out of pinched nerve & vestibular disease…but not dehydration…have I lost my wonderful boy with vet visit for her not jumping & giving him IV fluids ??? & her calling him a loss ??? With his wt. loss along w/pinched nerve & vestibular disease. Crying buckets shes taking him away OR is this best call for him now ? Recovery from all that has happened in 2wks too much for my sweet dog ?

  8. I have a 18-year-old terrier mix who has lost weight. He is still eating drinking and very active. He seems to be happy however when I bath him I can feel his bones. Should I be concerned. What can I feed him to fatten him up? He eats Science Diet for senior dogs.

  9. I have a 14 yr old almost 15 yr old American Pitbull. Hes lost alot of weight and we have done everything we can to get the weight back on him with no luck. Hes lost use of his back 2 two legs and hes got blood in his urine and his stool. I’m worried about him can anyone tell me what the possibilities are that’s causing this?

  10. I have a almost 15 year old ShihTzu. She is now blind but gets around very well, almost, she sometimes runs into things. Her appetite is good and she drinks her water. She has lost weight where you can see her ribs and hip bones. She has started begging for my food when I
    Eat. She seems ok other than her loosing the weight. I haven’t taken her to the vet because everything is fine as far as her eating and drinking. Should I add wet food to her dry?

  11. Hi, I have a 10 year old English Bull Mastiff. I am concerned with because he has been loosing weight. He’s overall pretty active when outside. While inside he does sleep a lot more. Appetite still seems good. I started him 2 months ago on a wheat free higher protein diet. His drinking seems ok. He done a head bobble, which lasted about 30 seconds but hasn’t happened again. I haven’t taken him to see the veterinarian yet. Should I
    be concerned? Is there something different I should feed him to help him gain weight?

  12. Hi, I have 17 year 5 mos old lab mix named Toby who has lost muscle mass over last 2 years. He has an overgrowth of gums and can’t completely close his mouth so drinks a lot of water. He’s a picky eater and always has been. Vision and hearing are not great but still loves his walks and would keep going until he collapses. He has quite a bit of arthritis. He gets blue mountain seniordog food, glucosamine, liquid multivitamin, powdered probiotics w digestive enzymes.. he also gets Cbd oil and omega flax oil. He is not incontinent but I trained him this year to use pee pads bc I work and he drinks and pees all day log. I add cornflakes and chicken or turkey of beef to his meal and he gets a lot o treats. If he were diabetic- should there be a way to treat him by not giving him needles. Any thoughts or suggestions ??

  13. Wow, what a kind vet. This lady writes articles online to help pet owners and takes the time to directly respond to comments…..all after working a 12+ hour day. Thank you for all that you do, Dr. Winnie 🦜🦆🐔 🦉🐓🐦
    Avian Lover in California

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